Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Effectiveness Of Mass Media Advertisements Marketing Essay

The Effectiveness Of Mass Media Advertisements Marketing Essay For many years mass media advertising was seen as the strongest form of creating awareness to a companys brand. However, the 21st century brings with it the decline of traditional mass media. As humans are being exposed to more and more advertising on a large scale, it is only inevitable that the effectiveness of the mass communication will greatly diminish. Magazines and newspapers are losing readers, radio is losing listeners, and most importantly television is losing viewers. Whats driving this trend is that consumers are drifting more towards digital media driven by online content typified by social media sites and online gaming, as well as more and more homes having access to broadband internet connectivity   and its capability to provide an ever-growing and an ever-higher quality of video content. Marketers also face a general proliferation of media and distribution channels, with declining trust in advertising, multitasking by consumers, and digital technologies that give u sers more control over the their media time. These trends are simultaneously fragmenting both the audience and the channels needed to reach them. The danger for marketers is that this change will render the time honoured way of getting messages to consumers through TV commercials less effective at best and a waste of time and money at worst. Therefore, companies must be intuitive in seeking alternative marketing communications to increase their brand awareness and therefore utilise this now wider scope of tools. Tools that companies already acquire can be utilised and modified into an effective medium of communication. Promoting public relations and accompanying it with one of the reasons for the decline in the effectiveness of television advertising (social media). Companies are able to generate an effective, yet efficient means of delivering a brands message through a two way relationship. Accompanying an advertising industry that is in decline with the economic downfall, consumer s have little confidence towards brands and therefore developing a medium that can deliver a message that is portrayed through a story enables brands to once again deliver effective brand awareness. Brand awareness refers to the ability of the consumer as to whether they can recall or recognise a brand, that is, whether consumers know about the brand (Keller, 2008). Brand awareness must be established before building brand equity. The brand name develops the memory nodes in consumers minds (Aaker, 1991). Brand awareness consists of two factors: brand recognition and brand recall performance (Keller 1993). Consumers tend to link related brand knowledge to the brand name, this ultimately constitutes in the end product of brand equity (Aaker, 1991  and  Keller, 1993). Hence, brand awareness evokes an important learning advantage for the brand (Keller, 2008). Consumer decision making is also affected by brand awareness, especially for low-involvement packaged goods. Brands that consumers know are more likely to be included in the consumers consideration set (Hoyer and Brown, 1990  and  MacDonald and Sharp, 2000). Consumers may use brand awareness as a purchase decision heuri stic (Hoyer and Brown, 1990  and  MacDonald and Sharp, 2000). Therefore, brand awareness amplifies brand market performance. The decline of mass media advertising In its prime, network television was seen by marketers and ad agencies as the benchmark to successful brand awareness campaigns. This was due to the sheer number of consumers that tuned into the most popular television shows. The emphasis of these marketers was mass messaging of the brand to the consumers as companys based their television spending on the share of voice, that is making sure your market share, expenditure of competitors and the companys growth expectations of the brand was in line with the advertising budget. However, fragmenting media and shifting behaviour by consumers are revealing the traditional models limits due to the following trends. Media propagation. In the United States, what used to be a handful of stations has developed and evolved into 1,774 full power TV stations. Multitasking. With the development of the internet, more and more people are multitasking. According to Ulla G. Foehr, the average US teenager engages in an average of two other activities, one of these activities in homework. Therefore, as students are studying they have the ability to selectively listen to the television. Meaning that they can zone out when advertisements are aired and back in when the program returns. The same concept is applicable with the multitasking of surfing the internet and watching television. In a similar concept that supports multitasking. Switching Off is the process of consumers being selective of what they watch and the advertisements they trust. Yankelovich Partners state that 65% of consumers believe that they are constantly being bombarded with too much advertisement, with 65% saying they would be interested in products and services that would help block marketing, and 54% saying that they would avoid purchasing products that engulf with advertisement and marketing. What Communications should be exploited? As Brand awareness is scrutinized as being the focal point towards the succession of a brand, and therefore the company, it is essential that marketers develop efficient and effective messages in a communication that ultimately would increase the recognition and recall of the brand. Therefore, as the decline in the effectiveness of mass media continues, it opens a Pandora box of opportunities throughout other communications for marketers to develop and exploit. Marketers need a more meticulous approach to a fragmenting world, one that dismisses mentalities and norms from mass media advertisings golden age and understands the investment it really is. In other words, it will be necessary to boost marketings return on investment (ROI). Academicians and practitioners have debated the merits of integrating the related yet distinct functions of marketing and public relations (PR) for decades to develop an alternative route in developing brand awareness (Kotler and Mindak 1978.) Public relations is commonly related with communication activities that are designed to craft and maintain an organisations image with its publics (Kitchen P Proctor R, 2010) The role of organisational public relations is expanding with the changing times: PR doesnt just focus on your business product; it also assists in shaping strategic messaging .(Anonymous, 2010, p. 28). Traditionally, this meant that public relation professionals would meet and work with members of the news media to build a favourable image by publicising the brand throughout newspapers and broadcast media. However, with the development of web 2.0 defined as a platform whereby content and applications are no longer created and published by individuals, but instead are continuously modified by all users in a participatory and collaborative fashion (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010, p. 61), Winchell (2010) states that brands are being dismissed, measured and documented in real time and should therefore join the conversatio n in social media. American Airlines, one of the worlds largest air carriers, believes that public relations can help to maximize shrinking advertising budgets in tight economic times (Bush, 2009). It is therefore seen in modern society that the role of public relations can be two fold. As creator of the story, such as the conversation towards the consumer, and, as the curator of the medium to use, ie., social media. As a result of the economic downturn, many consumers have lost trust and confidence in the business environment. In a 2005 Starcom study, it was stated that 65% of consumers believed that advertisers paid to have their products placed or featured in magazine articles (Starcom Study 2005). Therefore, marketers must attempt to instil a new sense of comfort and confidence between the consumer and the brand. This is where public relations can be extremely effective, as authenticity can illicit strong connections from brand to consumer through the means of storytelling (Allen 2005). Storytelling has a role throughout organisations and even throughout public forums, as word of mouth through brand conversation is on the rise (Finchum 2010). Therefore, when consumers come into contact with a brand for the first time; strong, favourable and unique brand associations would have a higher probability of being evoked when an authentic story is told by the product or service itself, or by the cust omer word-of-mouth or by a credible third party (Denning, 2006, p. 43). Schipul (2009) proclaims that since todays society is centre of a conservative economy, the aim is to focus on an organisations relationship with its publics and social media is the communication medium for such a thing to transpire. Social media, with its greater ROI and its two way communication with consumers is the solution to support public relations in creating brand awareness with positive associations. Extraordinary advances in technology are dramatically altering the way, speed and nature humans are communicating with each other (Bandura 2001). Moxham (2008) states that when an organisation is in conversation with a consumer they should tell the brands story and empower the consumer to also spread the word. This is ultimately delivered through storytelling in the communication of social media. This never used to be the case, as public relations was only seen a one way sender-orientated approach to communication, whereby mass media such as television, newspaper and radio were used to address the public (Helder Kragh, 2002). However, in the digital age, there is now what is known as receiver oriented approach and this involves having two way conversations through the medium of social media. Therefore this polar opposite approach results in individuals shifting fluidly and flexibly between the role of audience and author. The creation of basic, easy to use software enables any consumer to comment, post, share content and form an online community around shared interest (Thornley 2008). McDonalds is an organisation that has successfully incorporated the sharing component through the social media communication of Facebook. They have achieved this by delivering a message, and encouraging its consumers to share it if it relates to their friends. This is where the traditional one way, sender orientated communication protocol fails, as communication will only occur because the consumer sender wants it to. This message will only work if the consumer is able to ascertain the meaning that the advertisement was attempting to portray (Stidsen 1975). Nikes 2012 Olympic Twitter campaign flourished as 16,000 people tweeted the hash tag Nike during the event, demonstrating the audience that can be i nteracted. Public relations, as skilled relationship builders, therefore have the advantage over traditional advertisement as they are able to ensure the consumer has a deep understanding of the message that the brand was illustrating. As the effectiveness of traditional mass media declines, organisations must be able to adapt their communications with the changing times to ensure that they have the greatest probability in creating consumer brand awareness whilst not only having a superior ROI but a communication that will reach the masses. Through the fusion of public relations and social media, brands have an opportunity to develop relationship between the brand and its publics, creating deep and meaningful stories that intend to divulge strong, unique and favourable brand associations with the consumer through online social networks. Companies then hope that these stories will continue to be shared by publics to other new consumers. These findings hold significant importance to the marketing communications industry, particularly companies who partake in mass media advertisement. A lot of uncertainty surrounds the issue of companies creating brand awareness and loyalty when consumers are becoming more immune to m ass advertising effects. This is why public relations has been emphasised, as it attaches more credibility to the brand and emphasises to two way communication, which completes the communication cycle by ensuring feedback from customers to ascertain brand experience and value. Therefore integrating public relations with social media will be the new key to unlock the door of the consumers mind. As medias golden age has come to a close, many marketers are frustrated and have limited agreement about what to do next. Some business managers are attempting to dissect marketing-mix models that exercise refined econometric methods to meticulously decipher the diverse effects of the marketing mix on business results. Managers should utilise public relations and ensure that they convey a strong and deep message to the consumer. This is a simplistic, yet effective proposal, and would be efficiently installed in most companies. The consequences of not implementing this marketing strategy are for everyone to see. Mass media advertising was exceptionally effective in previous decades as it was able to target such a large audience, particularly television viewers. The reasons for this can be seen as the downfall of it today. In consideration to todays amount, there were only a handful of channels, resulting in an increased target size. People do not watch television in the same manner as they used to. A majority of the population multi task and therefore disregard advertisements as it is being aired. Therefore, whilst advertisement expenditure increases it can only be predicted that companies that do not apply this strategy have the risk of not creating enough brand awareness and losing brand loyalty with its customers. It is therefore recommended that companies take advantage of these findings as it can only provide future benefits for the brand by accessing a wider audience, because it could be a consumer th at is multitasking between television and social media only to take all attention away from the televised commercial and onto the social media page where they become aware and informed about a brand online. Further research can deeper analyse the forms and methods that can be put incorporated in using this social media, such ways that take into account the costs and audience scope. Studies can also be partaken to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating social media and public relations in developing brand awareness compared to other forms of communication.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Change from Idealism to Realism In the Process of Growing Up In Bot

Introduction: In both Northanger Abbey and Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen uses the concept of idealism in contrast with realism to elicit the theme of growing up and the effect it has on the characters’ points of view. This theme is most evident in the female protagonists-- Marianne Dashwood in Sense and Sensibility, and Catherine Morland in Northanger Abbey. Although both characters hold an ideal world in their minds, their personalities differ enormously. While Marianne imagines the world to be perfect and romantic, Catherine lives as a heroine and is constantly on the search for frightening scenes. However, despite this major difference, both protagonists go through memorable life experiences and eventually develop their perception from idealism to realism. In other words, although they possess different personalities, both Marianne and Catherine go through similar experiences of maturing from girls with fantasies to women who are forced to face reality. This then further leads int o the question, what is the effect of growth on a person’s mentality? Marianne Dashwood’s idealism: The Dashwood family has three daughters-- Elinor, Marianne, and Margaret. Among the three, Elinor, the eldest, represents sense as she has â€Å"an excellent heart; her disposition affectionate, and her feelings [are] strong: but she [knows] how to govern them† (Austen 6). In contrast, the second youngest sister Marianne is the representation of sensibility as she is â€Å"sensible and clever, but eager in everything,† she is also â€Å"generous, amiable, interesting†¦ everything but prudent† (Austen 6). After the death of their father, all of Mrs. Dashwood’s estate is taken away by the oldest male in the family, Henry Dashwood. While Elinor and her mother... ...earn from our mistakes-- that is how we grow. In Jane Austen’s novels, Marianne and Catherine are the definition of maturing. As the stories in both progress, Marianne and Catherine learn to take on new challenges and overcome new obstacles. Although there might be heartbreaking moments in their process of growing up, both characters eventually reach their moment of realization and decide to take off their goggles of idealism so to view the world better with the sight of realism. Is not this what life is all about? Living while trying to find a better definition for â€Å"living† and to find a better interpretation of the world we live in? Works Cited Austen, J. (2005). Northanger Abbey. New York City: Barnes & Noble Classics. (Original work published 1818) Austen, J. (1995). Sense and Sensibility. New York City: Dover Publications. (Original work published 1811)

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Alcohol and its Effects on the Human Body

The Campral website mentions that about 17. 6 million drinkers in the U. S. are considered alcoholics, or at least experience drinking problems to a certain degree. With the country’s current population being listed by the U. S. Census Bureau site at 303,963,066 people, this would amount to a staggering figure of 1 in 20 Americans finding trouble with this type of substance abuse. Drinking alcohol does not automatically qualify an individual as an alcoholic. While many would identify two to four types of drinkers, the Alcohol Treatment Clinics site was able to classify individuals who drink alcohol under six classes.These are health drinkers, social or responsible drinkers, problem or irresponsible drinkers, under aged drinkers, binge drinkers and alcoholics. The first type of drinker or health drinkers, would typically consume alcohol for health-related reasons. They are moderate drinkers who usually prefer to drink red wine, which is widely- known for its benefits to the car diovascular system. One example would be the French people whose healths have often been linked to their dietary habits that include wine. Social or responsible drinkers are those individuals who drink alcohol only during particular occasions.They engage in drinking to be able to interact or socialize with the group. They do not regard alcohol highly, but think of it as just an addition to meals. Their consumption of alcohol is done at a leisurely pace and they would never combine drinking with risky behavior such as driving. Working professionals who drink to have a feeling of belongingness and to facilitate conversations with coworkers in corporate parties or events easily come as an example for this category. On the other hand, problem drinkers would be the polar opposite of social drinkers. They can become very obnoxious and angry once they are drunk.Sometimes, they experience a loss of memory with regards to the events that transpired during their drinking session. This type of drinker does not have a definitive stereotype, and most probably could be described as an individual who â€Å"transforms† or â€Å"morphs† drastically when drunk. Their behavior when drunk might stand in stark contrast to their normal sober behavior. A specific type of problem drinker would be under aged drinkers. This classification was created due to the differences in the physical and psychological states of these individuals as compared to older people.Legal action may also arise for those individuals under this classification. The legal age for drinking is generally pegged at 21 in the United States, with exceptions made for cases covering health and religious reasons. Binge drinkers can go without alcohol for long periods of time. However, they tend to overindulge themselves during the times that they do drink. Some problems that can be caused by binge drinking are alcohol poisoning, uncontrollable mood swings and eventual alcohol dependency or alcoholism. In t erms of their behavior, they may act either as problem or social drinkers.Although aggressive behaviors as well as the usual symptoms of being drunk may or may not be exhibited by this group, a high possibility of causing severe damage to the liver and other health issues remains a great threat for them. Alcoholics have no control over their drinking habits. They often turn to alcohol to be able to deal with problems and drink an excessive amount of strong alcoholic drinks regularly. Because of this, they would often find it hard to function in other aspects of their lives, such as in their jobs. Their relationships with significant people in their lives may also take the backseat in their list of priorities.People who regularly face problems and turn to alcohol to â€Å"drown† them as well as those experiencing regular episodes of depression seeking to find â€Å"euphoric† feelings may turn into alcoholics, especially when they become reliant on the substance to deriv e that desired state. Those people who continuously indulge in alcohol for whatever other reason or at other levels, may also be candidates to becoming alcoholics as well. Some argue that this is due to the genes that a person carries. In its website, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism was also able to identify four major symptoms which characterize alcoholism.The first sign would be the presence of strong cravings or urges to drink within an individual. Next would be a person’s inability to halt drinking once he or she has engaged in this activity. Upon stopping drinking, an individual may also suffer several withdrawal symptoms such as nausea and shakiness, collectively termed as â€Å"physical dependence†. Lastly, an increase in tolerance for these substances often results to alcohol dependents drinking greater amounts of alcohol to induce euphoric or â€Å"high† feelings. Reactions to alcohol may vary from one afflicted individual to the next.Alcoholics may become angry and argumentative, depressed, quiet or withdrawn. They may also feel tense, sad, anxious or confused. Alcoholism, like any other illness, may strike at any age. These individuals may be aware of the consequences of alcoholism, but the compulsion to drink within them often overpowers them, so they just can’t stop drinking. Alcohol becomes the most important part of their lives. It totally consumes them so that all their thoughts and actions somehow become associated with alcohol. Alcohol has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body.When coupled with an individual’s failure to take care of his or her nutritional and physical needs during prolonged periods of excessive drinking, matters are further complicated. The effects on major organ systems are cumulative, which also includes several disorders for the digestive system. Blackouts, hallucinations, and extreme tremors may be experienced by the alcoholic. Aside from occasional emotional instability or â€Å"mood swings†, permanent damage to other systems such as the cardiovascular and nervous systems may also be induced in alcoholics (Mack, Franklin and Frances 109).The organ most probably vulnerable to damage would be the liver, since this is where alcohol breakdown takes place. If constantly left to the task of removing alcohol from the blood, the liver may eventually become worn out. This may hinder the liver from properly performing its usual duty of removing other harmful substances in the body. One of the most dangerous diseases of the liver caused by long-term alcohol use is cirrhosis of the liver. Cirrhosis causes the liver to become inflamed and scarred, which leads to the destruction of the liver and eventually the person’s death (Mack, Franklin and Frances 109).Alcohol also affects a person’s cardiovascular and circulatory systems. It causes an increase in blood pressure, which makes the heart pump harder to be able to cir culate blood around the body properly. This may cause an increase in heart rate while at the same time reducing the heart muscle’s pumping capabilities. Abnormal heart rhythms may also be developed due to severe alcohol consumption. In fact, long-term and heavy use of alcohol may cause a condition of the heart called alcoholic cardiomyopathy.The consumption of alcohol reduces the effectiveness of heart muscles to contract and may eventually lead to heart failure (Snyder 39). Lack of blood flow resulting from this condition may also lead to multiple organ system failure. One’s nervous system is also not spared from the damage. Doctor Salomon Snyder states that â€Å"alcohol’s action on the brain is what causes people to feel intoxicated. A sudden intake of large amounts of alcohol may result in death because nerve impulses to the brain are dangerously blocked. Alcohol also has an increasing effect on our brain chemistry, which causes our behavior to change.This can make people do things that they would not do when they are sober† (37). Over time, heavy drinking may cause permanent damage to the central nervous system. Drinking even a small amount of alcohol can make you sleepy, confused, uncoordinated and unsteady. Heavy drinking can cause or worsen urinary incontinence, problems with walking, depression, sleep disturbances, memory loss, high blood pressure, and bleeding in the digestive tract (Snyder 40). Some other observations on alcohol usage according to the Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs, include its immense effect on our brain.This results in difficulty walking, poor balance, and slurring of speech. At higher alcohol levels, a person’s breathing and heart rate will also be slowed and vomiting may occur. Alcohol is also known to cause sleep disturbances. Numbness and tingling sensations may also occur in the arms and legs due to the low thiamine levels (38). Most people see alcoholism as a disease closely related to males. It is shown by the figures however, that as many as half of the nation’s alcoholics are actually women.The reason why most female alcoholics cannot be seen is that they are usually closet drinkers. You rarely see women exhibiting behavior associated with alcoholism in public, while this phenomenon may be more readily observable for men. It is actually easier for a woman alcoholic to damage her body than it is for a man. The physical damage is aggravated since women generally wait longer to seek help since the society places a greater stigma on women than on men with regards to this. The livers of women are not as capable of processing alcohol when compared to those of men.This makes women alcoholics susceptible to developing liver problems with lower levels of alcohol in their bodies and after shorter periods of drinking (Snyder 62). The presence of large amounts of alcohol in women may interfere with fertility by upsetting the hormones in their body and can increase t he chances of a miscarriage. Women alcoholics who become pregnant may cause damage to the fetus in their wombs, which is called fetal alcohol syndrome. It can cause complications such as physical deformities and mental retardation (Labtestsonline).Elizabeth Somer claims that â€Å"women are more susceptible to tissue damage from elevated alcohol levels and have an increased risk for breast cancer, osteoporosis and dementia† (224). She goes on to mention that over 60 health problems can be linked to this addiction, including damage to the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. The mechanism has yet to be determined on why alcohol is considered a carcinogenic or cancer-causing substance, but most theories point to alcohol’s tendency to increase the amount of estrogen present in a woman’s body.Increased levels of this hormone have been linked to occurrences of cancer. People suffering from alcohol dependency perceive indulging in alcohol consumption as a ne cessity. Problems of whatever nature in their lives are ignored by these individuals so long as they can persist in their drinking. Thus, people afflicted with the disease often find themselves hindered from achieving their full potential as productive members of the society. By continuing in this sort of behavior, these individuals might go on to create not only problems for themselves, but also for others around them.Alcohol causes a change in brain chemistry which results in changes in behavior such as increased aggression and reduced fear which may lead us to take needless risks. Alcohol can cause people to be rude, verbally abusive, and physically threatening. This is because some people turn to alcohol to express hostile feelings that they wouldn’t be able to express when they are sober. These factors almost always lead to trouble or confrontations with people around the alcohol dependent, including complete strangers. Perhaps no other scenario presents this more clearl y than when people drive while under the influence of alcohol.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, an individual was killed in alcohol-related car crashes about every half-hour, while injuries occurred every two minutes during 2005. Half of roughly 400 children riding with the drunk driver dying during that span died. Overall, alcohol-related motor vehicle deaths amounted for about 40% of the total traffic-related deaths for 2005. These crashes amount to about 51 billion dollars lost each year. Alcohol alone does not cause alcoholism, because if it did, everyone who drank would be an alcoholic.There are a number of factors that lead to alcoholism. Some scientists support the argument that becoming an alcoholic is purely the result of an individual’s genetics. Because of genetics, people tend to inherit an inability to handle alcohol, just like other people inherit other diseases from their parents (Niaaa. nih. gov). This may explain why alcohol ism seems to run in families from generation to generation, and why some people become alcoholics from the first time they drink. Aside from one’s genetics, one also cannot discount the role of one’s environment as well as the lifestyle one engages in.If children were exposed to drinking with drinkers who were careful and moderate for example, they would be more likely to become responsible drinkers. However, if they grew up seeing heavy alcohol use they would be more likely to also engage in that act also. Children that are exposed to a large amount of peer pressure from the kids around them also increase their likelihood of drinking. Some may start out as social drinkers who are able to control their drinking, but they may lose this control and be carried away, eventually becoming alcoholics themselves (Alcoholtreatmentclinics.com). Alcoholism seems to run in families. Although there is nothing conclusive, some studies have shown that all alcoholics have had a close alcoholic relative (Snyder 100). Like many drug abusers, alcoholics often drink hoping to â€Å"drown† feelings of anxiousness or depression. Some drink to reduce strong inhibitions or guilt about expressing negative feelings. The first, and probably one of the most difficult things that an alcoholic must do, is come to an admission that they have a problem.It is unlikely that they will be first to admit it, and they may usually deny that they are being controlled by their addiction. With their inability to discern things for themselves, other individuals such as close friends or relatives may sometimes have to take the initiative in reporting potential alcoholics. The difficulty with this lies in the fact that people cannot be forced to seek help against their will, unless special circumstances are present like being ordered by the court to do so. The NIAAA website offers eight steps for people who want to aid alcoholics who are unwilling to seek help.The first step, stoppin g â€Å"cover ups†, calls for those closely related to the alcoholic to finally make him or her accountable for the consequences arising from the addiction, instead of presenting excuses for the afflicted individual to others. This may be quite a difficult process, since our initial reaction would be to â€Å"protect† family or friends. When putting things in perspective however, we may eventually come to the conclusion that allowing alcoholics to be accountable to the products of their actions would be a much better option than continuing to risk his or her life because of our consent in their addiction.By taking this step, we are actually starting to really offer protection to them. An attempt must then be made to talk to the drinker. It was recommended that this be done immediately after any conflict or problem developed due to alcohol abuse. This must be done in a private setting where both parties involved must be calm and sober. One can choose places where relaxe d feelings are being evoked like the bedroom, or any other location where your conversation is not likely to be disturbed.By accomplishing this step, the alcoholic individual is shown that their rights are still being respected, while at the same time emphasizing the seriousness of your intentions. The third step calls for the concerned individual to voice out his or her growing anxiety regarding the alcoholic’s substance abuse, and how this has developed problems, including the most recent conflict. If the alcoholic has a tendency of being verbally or physically abusive towards people when drunk, this would be the appropriate time to mention it.Choose words which would be most effective in finally making the afflicted individual aware of just how grave the situation really is. Consequences of the drinker’s refusal to get help must then be stated next. These may include things such as moving out of the house. The site mentions that this is not a form of punishment for the drinker, but is performed to protect people close to the individual from harm. One should always be prepared to perform the statements that were mentioned at this stage and not simply bank on making empty threats.The degree of just how radical your threats would be, should of course, depend largely on the offenses made by the alcoholic mentioned in the third step. In the fourth step, a schedule may then be made for the local counselor or organization within the area, after gathering data on possible options for treatment and the alcoholic gives his or her consent. With regards to this, one can locate the best possible sources of help via the internet or by consulting the local directory. When the scenario arises that the alcoholic would refuse to cooperate, a friend may be called upon to perform the first four steps.Choose a friend who the alcoholic has great trust in, or perhaps someone who has already undergone rehabilitation themselves. Individuals with past experiences deali ng with alcohol problems may be very effective at this point, since they may provide deeper insight on how the rehabilitation process works. They may also provide the needed moral support when the alcoholic finally relents to seek professional help. Another option might be to confront the alcoholic as a group. With a group, one would essentially obtain several inputs regarding the situation.One of these ideas could prove to be the critical element in the alcoholic’s decision-making process. Coming face-to-face with several people may also heighten the situation’s level of gravity as perceived by the alcoholic. This step however, must always be performed under the supervision of a trained health care professional familiar with such matters to ensure. A briefing may be done prior to the confrontation to ensure that no actions detrimental to the goal of making the patient seek help will be committed. Lastly, individuals who live or know alcoholics might want to join group s such as Alateen, which caters to children of alcoholics.Organizations such as these provide the needed information and support for people who are closely connected to alcoholics to watch out for themselves, whether the alcoholic chooses to get help or not. If the alcoholic was physically abusive during the drunken state, it would of course be wise to know the options that one has in the situation. By getting adequate information, misery and regrets might be avoided by a lot of people, like averting situations when an alcoholic would inflict lifelong physical deformities on people close to him.Alcoholism is a disease that cannot be totally cured but people can at least recover from it and return to a normal way of life. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website mentions how an effective program of medication and counseling may aid individuals in their struggle towards stopping alcohol abuse. Although the effects may vary from one person to the other, just like in other illnesses, the Institute firmly believes in the effectiveness of alcohol treatment. Family, friends, counselors and organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous may offer the needed help and support towards the recovery of the afflicted individual.Sometimes, entering a detox center may even be necessary since this recovery process can be extremely difficult. In fact, some withdrawal reactions may include high fever, loss of appetite, nausea, uncontrollable shaking, hallucinations and even possible coma or death (Snyder 40). Limiting an individual’s intake of alcohol is deemed an ineffective strategy for alcoholics. Stopping the substance abuse may call for the outright absence of alcohol in one’s life. Some medications have been recommended to help alcoholics with regards to this. These include disulfiram (Antabuse ®), naltrexone (Depade ®, ReVia ®) and acamprosate (Campral ®).They may aid an alcoholic in alcohol reduction if not abstinence. Each type of medicine works in a different way. One’s craving for alcohol may be reduced, deter symptoms from alcohol abstinence from manifesting or make a person feel sick after alcohol consumption. No one medication however is deemed totally effective. Each case must still be assessed carefully before choosing which type of medicine to take. Just as much as alcoholics should not be feared, they should also not be loathed by our society. As mentioned in the earlier part of the essay, some people develop the drinking habit out of their perceived inability to handle problems.At the onset, this â€Å"habit† may actually be curbed through adequate attention and moral support being given to the individual by friends and family. Parents who try to educate their children on proper or social drinking might be doing their children a big favor, instead of letting young kids have their first drinking experience with peers. They can include ideas on just how much â€Å"too much† to dr ink is, as well as place specific rules on what activities to avoid upon consuming alcohol (driving, swimming, and other risky activities).Valuable insights may also be gleaned by parents from the experience of drinking with their children regarding their child’s behavior when engaging in the activity, and if the situation should arise, when their kids are drunk. If a person does get afflicted with the disease, there would still be many options available to counter the disease as mentioned before. Although it could prove to be a lifelong struggle, there are individuals who have been able to master the affliction and become successful people in society, with famed writer Stephen King being one of them.The issue of alcoholism is clearly not an easy one to confront not only for those mired in this addiction, but also for the people around them. Although the fight to recovery may not be easy, the right attitude from all the people involved combined with proper education on the to pic, could mean the difference for the health and safety of many people within our country. With the right approach, we can finally see the handling of alcoholism as an issue of giving second opportunities and success, instead of resigning ourselves to its usual tragic outcome. Works Cited â€Å"Alcoholism.† Labtestsonline. org. 1 May 2008 Chopra, Deepak, M. D. Overcoming Addictions. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1997. â€Å"FAQ for the General Public. † Niaaa. nih. gov. 1 May 2008 â€Å"Impaired Driving. † Cdc. gov. 1 May 2008 Mack, Avram H. M. D. , John E. Franklin, M. D. , and Richard J. Frances M. D. Treatment of Alcoholism and Addictions. New Jersey: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc. , 2001.Snyder, Solomon H. M. D. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs – Alcohol and Alcoholism. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1992. Somer, Elizabeth. 10 Habits That Mess Up a Woman’s Diet. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006. â€Å"Types of Drinkers. † Alcoholtreatmentclinics. com. 1 May 2008 â€Å"U. S. POPClock Projection. † Census. gov. 1 May 2008 â€Å"Understanding Alcoholism. † Campral. com. 1 May 2008

Friday, January 3, 2020

What The American Public Always Wants Is A Tragedy With A...

It is known that as time passes by humans tend to change the meanings of certain events that have occurred in the past, they add a new connotation to it. This isn’t much different when regarding U.S History. Every time we go through a tragedy or something we aren’t specifically proud of we try to see the positive side of it in order to not be ashamed of ourselves just like Blight’s prologue states a quote by William Dean Howells, â€Å"What the American public always wants is a tragedy with a happy ending.† Moreover, through the Civil War and the years it follow we see how the idea of what the Civil War means is revolutionized. At the beginning when the Civil War broke out many thought that they were fighting the South because they seceded from the Union. However, towards the end like Blight states, â€Å"In the final months of the Civil War, all participants knew they were living through transformations† (23). One needed to know what the far was go ing to be about in order to make it clear of the coming steps that would be developed after the Civil War. Just on key Lincoln gives the war a new meaning, the war was fought to emancipate slaves and to bestow upon them their basic rights. Blight states in his The Dead and the Living, â€Å"Lincoln seemed to see fitfully that rebirth would be rooted in the challenge of human equality in a nation† (13). This became the most reasonable meaning to the Civil War since it was one of the main reasons that tension continued to grow. Moreover, it wasShow MoreRelatedThe Beginning Of The Civil War1289 Words   |  6 PagesWar was in fact about slavery and that slavery was an issue â€Å"resolved† by the Civil War. Yes the war was initially about race and how the country â€Å"needed† to free slaves, David W. Blight states it, â€Å"The emancipationist vision, embodied in African Americans’ complex remembrance of their own freedom, their politics of radical Recons truction, and in conceptions of the war as the reinvention of the republic and the liberation of blacks to citizenship and Constitutional equality† (Blight, 2). The writerRead MoreGeneral Introduction: Eight Great Tragedies2218 Words   |  9 PagesGeneral Introduction: Eight Great Tragedies In Greek the word â€Å"tragedy† means â€Å"goat song†, but the connection between tragedy and goat song is obscure. Perhaps a goat was the prize at some sort of early singing contest in Greece, or perhaps the dancers wore goat skins. One medieval writer ingeniously suggested that tragedy is called goat song because it begins prosperously, as a goat is abundantly hairy in front, and ends wretchedly, as a goat is bare in the rear. Dante Alighieri, whose DivineRead MoreTess vs Jane Eyre2678 Words   |  11 Pagesa dandy, pretended to be a kind man and had Tess in his care due to her beauty. At first, he made Tess to feed chickens in his house and treated her very well, but he seduced Tess and impregnated her only three months later. Then Tess’s horrible tragedies started. It is very simple to find several similarities and diversities between Jane Eyre and Tess’s background, these factors is very important to the research. In the first place, they have similar family situation, both of them was born in aRead MoreAn American Tragedy and the Futility of the American Dream3919 Words   |  16 PagesAn American Tragedy is an intriguing, frighteningly realistic journey into the mind of a murderer. It is a biography of its era. And, it is also historical fiction. But what makes this novel a classic? While society has changed dramatically since 1925, Dreisers novel, which shows the futility of The American Dream and the tragedies that trying to live it can cause, accurately summarizes social mores of this and any time period. br brBefore Theodore Dreiser was born, his father, a devout GermanRead MoreThe Holocaust : A Universal Tragedy1783 Words   |  8 PagesThe Holocaust is a universal tragedy of almost full extermination of the Jewish population b y German occupants during the Second World War. Nevertheless, even living in our times the theme of Holocaust is still a subject of poignant historiographical debates, according to the numbers of works on this event and the development of archaeology, researches from all other the world try to reveal the mystery that is hidden behind the curtain. Philosophers, politicians, and theologians give us many newRead MoreJohnny Cash Research Paper2209 Words   |  9 PagesBritton Copley Mrs. Nicholson American Literature- Pre AP 4 January 2013 From a Ring of Fire to a Man in Black Every time Johnny Cash would step out in front of a crowd he would greet his millions of followers with the same line: â€Å"Hello, I’m Johnny Cash†. He would be greeted with roars, hollers, and cheers whenever he was seen. Cash influenced a generation and blended music genres to bring the country together. Known as The Man in Black, for it was the only color he would wear after 1957 (StreissguthRead MoreThea 1016562 Words   |  27 Pagesmentioning its artistic value and social impacts. Since such is the case, there are a lot of misunderstandings and even distortions about multiple aspects of Romeo and Juliet (for example, many people think that Romeo and Juliet are among the Four Great Tragedies of Shakespeare, which is not true). Even me, who has been taking this course in the past few months, only knew the basic storyline and a little bit about the playwright Shakespeare before doing further research for this project (for example, I thoughtRead MoreO Henry3034 W ords   |  13 Pagestwentieth-century Balzak. Some have called him the American Maupassant because of his so well made surprising endings. The short story is the one fundamental and self-contained genre in American prose fiction, and the stories of O. Henry certainly made their appearance in consequence of the prolonged and incessant cultivation of the genre The real O. Henry is found in an irony pervading all his stories, in a keen feeling for form and traditions. Americans cannot help wanting to prove a resemblance inRead More Analyses of Short Stories Essay examples4756 Words   |  20 Pageshe was feeling would have led the reader to believe that the events were not real. I also saw this story as an allegory. I saw the allegory after reading the story two times. I think it is centered on Goodman Brown having a bumpy past and that he wants to go beyond his past and reach heaven. The characters names also show the religious allegory in the story. The names Goodman and Faith are used and the characters are then soon faced with terrifying evil. I think that Goodman Brown and his wife,Read MoreNella Larsens Passing Essay2911 Words   |  12 PagesNella Larsens Passing The Harlem Renaissance was a turning point for many African Americans. A vast amount of literature was created specifically for this group during this era. It was a period when the African American was in vogue and white thinkers and writers were devoting a considerable amount of attention to them (Taylor 91, 90). For the first time, African Americans were being told that it was okay to be proud of who they were. This new consciousness and self-awareness was

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde - 1619 Words

The gothic novella, â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† by Robert Louis Stevenson, published in 1886, is a glimpse back in time to the Victorian era. The novella highlights the Victorian morality and the Victorian model of life. The key features of Victorian morality include a set of moral values pillared in sexual restraints, low tolerance policies on crimes and a strict social code of conduct. Dr. Jekyll is a respected member living in the Victorian society, who abides to all the rules and regulations. Mr. Hyde is his own repressed and animalistic personality, awakened through his wild science experiment, to dissociate the good and evil personalities with the help of a potion. The themes incorporated in the novella are: the existence of dualism in human nature (good vs. evil), repression, physiognomy, reputation, friendship, murder, curiosity about science, religion, violence on the innocent or weak, and death. Though the story is a science fiction, it is fas cinating that the same person can have entirely opposing personalities. The protagonist, Dr. Henry Jekyll represents the good side of the human personality and the antagonist, Mr. Edward Hyde represents the evil side of the human personality — display the phenomenon of dualism in human nature. Thus, the story concentrates mainly on the issue, whether human nature is inherently good or evil and Stevenson portrays how the dichotomy of good and evil coexists within theShow MoreRelatedThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1675 Words   |  7 PagesThe Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Essay Robert Louis Stevenson’s novella, â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde,† is a type of Gothic literature. In the beginning of the story when Stevenson is describing the lawyer, one â€Å"Mr. Utterson,† the mood is a bit dull. At first glance the reader may think that this story would be a bit boring and drab. Stevenson’s story is far from being another dull piece of British English literature. The setting and mood of this novella are more complexRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde Essay975 Words   |  4 PagesStevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a novella that follows the basic outline established by Mary Shelley in Frankenstein. However, Stevenson’s monster is not created from body parts but comes from the dark side of the human personality. In both novels, a man conducts a secret experiment that gets out of control. The result of these experiments is the release of a double, or doppelgan ger, which causes damage to their creator. While most people think that The Strange Case of Dr. JekyllRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1440 Words   |  6 Pagescomplexity of human nature in his books, especially in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and Kidnapped. The former is about a lawyer named Mr. Utterson seeking out the truth of Dr. Jekyll’s very strange will. He finds out that Jekyll was transforming himself into Mr. Hyde so that he could have the freedom to do whatever he wanted no matter how evil. By the time Utterson finds all this out and findsJekyll, he is too late and Jekyll has already killed himself. The latter is about David BalfourRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1196 Words   |  5 Pageswhich do let control you? The good or evil? This was a question that Dr. Jekyll from the book, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, could not answer. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a book about a man who cannot control the two sides of himself, causing him to do terrible things and not even be aware of it. The theme of this book is good versus evil. Dr. Jekyll is fighting his evil side, known as Mr. Hyde, throughout the book. Some people believe that the book’s theme hasRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde938 Words   |  4 PagesVictorian Hopes and Fears Involving Science as Found in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde During the Victorian Era there was a great race to use science to alleviate the suffering of the ill, specifically for those patients who were suffering from ailments of the mind. While some of the methods used to diagnose and treat such afflictions would be considered barbaric in nature by today’s standards, they were considered cutting edge medical science during the time of the Victorian Era. It was also consideredRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde964 Words   |  4 PagesThe Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, written by Robert Louis Stevenson was published in 1886. The story is published during the Victorian era, the Victorian era was an age of repression, there was no violence, no sexual appetite, and there was no great expression or emotion. In the story, Dr. Jekyll creates a potion that turns him into Mr. Hyde, Mr. Hyde is the complete opposite of what people are in the Victorian era. At first, Dr. Jekyll is in control of Mr. Hyde, but towards t he end MrRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1505 Words   |  7 PagesDuring the latter portion of the nineteenth century, Robert Louis Stevenson published his novella, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. The fin de sià ¨cle saw the rise of different thoughts and ideas surrounding science and society. These concepts and interpretations sparked the discourse surrounding the theory of degeneration; which was the concern that civilization would fall to a lower state of being. This chapter will be reading multiplex personality as a manifestation of this broader culturalRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1739 Words   |  7 Pagesnovel â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde† by Robert Louis Stevenson, the novel â€Å"Frankenstein† by Mary Shelley, the short story â€Å"The Monkey’s Paw† by W.W Jacobs and the short story â€Å"Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. These four texts convey this theme through the use of gothic conventions such as death, madness and darkness. In the novels The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson and Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll are wronglyRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1351 Words   |  6 PagesThe Personas of Henry Jekyll Every person is born with bright and dark personas that people moderate due to the standards of society. In The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Jekyll and Hyde battle for the power to stay alive in the story. As Jekyll continues to try and take over his evil persona, Hyde tries to stay alive and cause evil in the world. In our society, many people will struggle with self control and Dr. Jekyll has trouble controlling his alter ego by performing his evil pleasuresRead MoreThe Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde1326 Words   |  6 Pages The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was published during the late Victorian era, but he clearly brings into question the acceptance of Victorian philosophies, especially the belief that one truth exists and that we can identify good and evil as separate entities. The names Jekyll and Hyde have become synonymous with multiple personality disorder. This novel can be examined from the natural dualism and Freud’s structural th eory of the mind. In The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Statistics What You Need To Know Current All

Questions: 1. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals.?2. Assess the appropriateness of the statistics used by referring to the chart presented in the Module 4 lecture and the resource "Statistical Assessment?3. Discuss the value of statistical significance vs. pragmatic usefulness? Answers: 1. The healthcare system is entangled with the need to increase revenue at the same time attain considerable level of patient satisfaction. This is possible only when the cost of the healthcare system will be maintained. The service providers have been realizing the importance of the association between the patient satisfaction and the volume of patients being admitted that need to be analyzed. The analysis will enhance the expectation of the patients and suppress the compensation. The healthcare service providers are alarmingly concerned with their performance in order to increase the patient satisfaction but keeping in mind that the healthcare market is a competitive one, the providers are carefully competing with the rivals based on quality, enhanced service, reputation and other non-monetary characteristics. (Paiva Andre, 2012) In the article, the author had commenced a study based on a survey of seven teaching and seven non-teaching hospitals were evaluated for a period of five year from 1999 to 2003. The survey was done by mailing a set of questionnaires to the patients who had discharged. The patients who were the study participants involved aspects of demographic diversity, level of income, coverage of insurance, age and other relevant features. The questionnaires of the survey were related to the process of admission, room services, meals, service provided by nurses, method of tests and treatment, personal issues, physician, discharge and on the entire assessment. This questionnaire would help to evaluate the level of satisfaction of the patients by using the five-point Likert type scale. The data of the volume of inpatient admissions were obtained by the interested hospitals who submitted their admission data for the years 1999 to 2003. Then the data on the volume of admission and the survey data of t he patients is utilized in the statistical analysis. The study helped to answer two research questions. One is the nature f the association of patient satisfaction and the volume of inpatient admission in the acute care hospital and other is the relationship between the patient satisfaction and the volume of admission of inpatients in teaching and non-teaching hospitals. (Carlberg, 2011) The statistical analysis exhibited the patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and the admission volume is the independent variable. From the summary table of the statistically analysis, it can inferred that the Spearman rank-order correlation, r is -0.287 where the p-value is 0.018. It shows that there is a significant level of negative correlation between the patient satisfaction and volume of admission in the two types of hospitals. (Graham, 2011) This implies that as the level of the satisfaction increases, the volume of the admission in the hospitals will decrease. Mann-Whitney U test determines the significance of the analysis. The null hypothesis is that the teaching and the non-teaching group is identical and alternative hypothesis is significant difference between the two groups. Since the value of n is 35 as the analysis is done on seven hospitals and over a period o five years. The test is done by the z-statistics which is calculate to be -4.064 and this value is gr eater than the tabulated value of z, so the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. Here the p value is less than 0.001 which proves that the analysis is statistically significant. (Spiegel Stephens, 2011) In terms of individual calculation of the Spearman correlation, the value of r is 0.581 and p-value is less than 0.001 which imply that the patient satisfaction and admission volume in teaching hospitals have significant and positive correlation. On the contrary, the value of r is -0.097 and the p-value is 0.579 which proves that the relationship between the patient satisfaction and the volume of admission in non-teaching hospital is statistically insignificant and a negative one. (Kollo, 2013) The reasons behind the differences in the level of patient satisfaction in the teaching and non-teaching hospitals can be attributed to the organization differences in both the type of hospitals. In the teaching hospitals the organizational structure is complex but there is the scope for training and enhancement of medical knowledge whereas the scope in the non-teaching hospitals is limited as they concentrate mainly on the care and treatment to the patients. This might seem as the correlation must be positive with the non-teaching hospitals as they totally concentrate on the quality service of the patients but it does not change with the changes in the medical environment which limits the opportunities. Another aspect is the duration of the stay of patients in the teaching hospitals are more than that of the o-teaching hospitals which can affect the satisfaction level of the patients and increase the admission rates in the teaching hospitals. (Schoenfelder, Klewer Kugler, 2011) 2. The summary of the data analysis reveal the frequencies, means, medians and the standard deviations with which the characteristics of the hospitals were measured with respect to the satisfaction level of the patient and admission volume. To determine the shape and the distribution of the relevant data used in the analysis skewness and kurtosis were measured. The data used cannot be conclusively stated that its distribution is normal as the sample size acted like a constraint in this regard. So to avoid the complexities, non parametrical statistical test was selected to commence the data analysis. The relationship between the satisfaction of patients and the hospitalization rates were conducted through the analysis of the correlation coefficient of the Spearman Rank order. Here seven hospitals of teaching and non-teaching type each were selected and the analysis or the data collected from the interested hospitals were based on a five year record during 1999-2003. In the next sectio n the Mann Whitney U-test was performed to understand the dissimilarity between the subsample of teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The connection between the patient satisfaction level and the level of hospitalization was discovered using the analysis of the independent and the dependent variable. (Kobayashi, Mark Turin, 2012) 3. The study was based on the association between the patient satisfaction score and the volume of admission was conducted. The data used for satisfaction of the patients were derived from the patients who were discharged from the hospitals. The data was collected through the survey of set questionnaires that were analyzed through the five-point likert scale. The data for the admission volume where collected from the hospitals through their records. Both the data were complied to form the basis of the statistical analysis. The correlation coefficient gave a different story to the different analysis. So the Mann Whitney U-test was performed. Here also due to the complexity in the sample size and the data distribution, non-parametrical statistical analysis was done. The z statistics was calculated and proved to be greater than the tabulated value of z with the relevant degrees of freedom. (Sprinthall, 2012) This proves that the analysis is statistically significant. Here the null hypot hesis is the identical relation between the non teaching and the teaching hospital. The statistical significance is judged when the calculated value of z exceeds the tabular value then the hull hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. Also the p-value is less than 0.001 which means that the lower the value of p, the higher the chances of the association and this is why it is called statistically significant. The hypothesis is the notion that the researcher is analyzing to prove. In this regard it is proved that there are differences in the teaching and the non teaching hospitals. The statistically significance of the data analysis proves that there is a significant difference between the satisfaction scores of the patients and the admission rates in the teaching hospitals with the same when the non-teaching hospitals are considered. Furthermore it can be said that when the correlation analysis were conducted individually, it was proved that there remained a certain level of differences between the dependent and the independent variables in the teaching and the non teaching hospitals. (Horton Kleinman, 2011) Pragmatic usefulness or validity is a measurement tool that acts like a predictor regarding certain features of the variables used in the statistical analysis. (wiseGEEK, 2015) The pragmatic approach reveals the responsiveness of the measure that used to explain the criterion or characteristics of the analysis. Another approach is the concurrent validity. The pragmatic validity is measured through the correlation coefficient of the variables. In this case the higher the value of the correlation coefficient, the more pragmatic validity is confirmed. (RE, 2015) The correlation done between the satisfactions of patients with the combined data of the admission rates reveal that the value of r is -0.287 which establishes a negative correlation but the value is not high. Again when the correlation was conducted between the satisfaction scores of patients and the admission rates in teaching hospitals where the value of r is 0.581 which is positive and the value is relatively high. Lastly, the correlation between the satisfaction scores of the patients and the volume of admission in the non-teaching hospitals was conducted and the value of r is -0.097 which is negative and relatively low value. Thus for the first and the third case, pragmatic validity or usefulness cannot be justified, whereas for the second case the pragmatic validity is justified. The result is somewhat different in the case of the statistical significance measure. But the pragmatic validity is not a popular or relevant measure, so it is wise to consider the results of test of significance. (WALTON LAYTON, 2012) References Carlberg, C. (2011).Statistical analysis. Indianapolis, Ind.: Que. Graham, A. (2011).Statistics. London: Hodder Education. Horton, N., Kleinman, K. (2011).Using R for data management, statistical analysis, and graphics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Kobayashi, H., Mark, B., Turin, W. (2012).Probability, random processes, and statistical analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kollo, T. (2013).Multivariate statistics. Singapore: World Scientific Pub. Co. Paiva, T., Andre,. (2012). Evaluating aesthetics of the nasolabial region in children with cleft lip and palate: professional analysis and patient satisfaction.PPA, 781. doi:10.2147/ppa.s36656 RE, G. (2015).What does it mean to be pragmatic? Pragmatic methods, measures, and models to facilitate research translation. - PubMed - NCBI.Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 May 2015, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23709579 Schoenfelder, T., Klewer, J., Kugler, J. (2011). Analysis of factors associated with patient satisfaction in ophthalmology: the influence of demographic data, visit characteristics and perceptions of received care.Ophthalmic And Physiological Optics,31(6), 580-587. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00869.x Spiegel, M., Stephens, L. (2011).Statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill. Sprinthall, R. (2012).Basic statistical analysis. Boston: Pearson Allyn Bacon. WALTON, T., LAYTON, D. (2012). Cost satisfaction analysis: a novel patient-based approach for economic analysis of the utility of fixed prosthodontics.Journal Of Oral Rehabilitation,39(9), 692-703. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2842.2012.02314.x wiseGEEK,. (2015).What Is Statistical Significance? (with picture). Retrieved 14 May 2015, from https://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-statistical-significance.htm